Today in this Post We will let you know about Sunflower Cultivation or Sunflower Farming. We will discuss about How To Cultivate Sunflower? And Earn profit of lakhs by cultivating it. Keep this in mind: Applying sunflower oil in practice does not cause any fatal disease.
Sunflower is the main and versatile edible oilseed crop of the country. It is the second most suitable oilseed crop after safflower. It contains 64 percent lanoleic acid. Which is very useful for human health. This acid acts to remove cholesterol from the heart artery. Which is very useful for the heart.
Sunflower Cultivation (Sunflower Farmin) is done in the states of Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and Bihar. Sunflower oil contains alphatocopherol which is an antioxidant that removes free radicals from the human body, which greatly reduces the chances of diseases in the human body.
The high level of protein is found in its peel of 40-44%. Which is helpful in making animal feed and healthy food for children. Its oil has considerable industrial importance. Its origin is South USA and Mexico. It came to India in 1969. Its seeds are large, white, small black and of medium size.
It is cultivated in summer, spring and rabi season. It is a photosensitive crop. Light coolness is required at germination and maturing stage. Requires mild to warm weather. Full sunlight is needed at the time of flowering from fruit to grain.
It is harmful at the time of rain and cloudy flowering. Soil with pH value of 6.5 to 8.5 is suitable for its cultivation. Although it is grown in all types of soils, but deep loamy land and land with good drainage is best.
• Preparation of the field: The soil should be friable and well moisturised. First plowing should be done with soil turning plow. Later, after several ploughings with Harrow or Cultivator, after each plowing, the field should be kept flat and lump free. Spread 5-6 tonnes of compost 20-25 days before sowing and mix it in the fields.
• Seed rate: Complex seed is given at 8 kg per hectare and hybrid seed is given at 5 kg per hectare. Seeds of hybrid varieties are changed every year. Whereas cluster varieties are used for two to three years.
• Sowing Distance : Packaged seed 45X20 cm. Depth – 4-6 cm, hybrid seed 60X30 cm.
• Sowing Time : Spring
From 15th February to 10th March hot crop – the entire month of April
Rabi crop – 15 October to 10 November
Seed treatment is done 24-36 hours before with a drug called Captan or Thiram at the rate of three grams of medicine per kg of seeds. If the apron is treated at the rate of 35 LD to 6 grams per kg of seed, then a disease called downy mildew is controlled.
10-12 hours before sowing, if treatment with Azotobacter is done at the rate of 200 grams per 10 kg of seed, the production increases by 15-18 percent. Before sowing the seeds should be swelled in water for 16 hours, then treated and sown. There should be good moisture in the field before sowing.
60:80:40 kg NP should be applied per hectare in cluster strain and 80:90:40 kg per hectare in hybrid. Apply half dose of Nitrogen in irrigated condition and full dose of Sphur and Potash at the time of sowing.
The remaining half quantity of nitrogen should be divided into two equal parts and applied after the first irrigation and at the time of flowering. Sphur should be filled with sulfur containing fertilizers, so that the amount of oil will increase in the grains, in unirrigated horticulture stage, full quantity of nitrogen, sphur and potash should be applied at the time of sowing.
• Irrigation – It is necessary to maintain sufficient moisture in the soil for good yield. At the critical stage of the crop, bud formation (after 20-25 days), flower formation (55-60 days later) and seed formation (70-75) ie three irrigations should be done.
• Weeding and Weed Management – After 15-18 days in sunflower, the extra plants which are weak, diseased should be removed by calving. Weeding should be done 20-25 days after sowing and 35-40 days after sowing.
The crop should be kept weed free for 60 days. Immediately after sowing, spray 3 liters of Pendimethalin 30EC dissolved in 700-800 liters of water per hectare. Soil should be applied when the plants are knee-length. By applying soil from both sides near the roots, there is no possibility of the plants falling in strong wind and water. Dropping plants significantly reduces yield.
• Artificial Pollination: Sunflower is a pollinated crop which is done by insects. If there is a bee nearby, then it is very good otherwise the yield may decrease. Therefore, artificial pollination is necessary.
When the pollen is formed, artificial pollination should be done by taking velvet cloth in hand from 7 am to 11 am, leaving one day on the other day for two weeks.
This will increase the yield. Keeping bee boxes increases the yield by 18-25 percent. By doing artificial pollination, the yield will increase, otherwise the grains will not be strong, as a result of which the yield will decrease.
Harvesting, Rosemary and Storage
Harvesting should be done when the back of the flower turns yellow and the flower is bent towards the ground. The seeds should be dried well. The moisture content of the seeds should not exceed 10-12 percent at the time of storage.
Major Pests and Diseases of Sunflower and Management
•• Kajra Pillu of Sunflower: Pillu is brown or gray in color. Whose body is smooth. Their pups hide in crevices inside the ground during the day and in the evening they cut small plants from the surface of the ground and drop them.
1. Place heaps of dry grass and chaff in the fields. At night, after eating the plants, the pups hide in heaps. Remove them in the morning and destroy them.
2. Use light trap in the field.
3. Mix Methyl Paradhian 2% dust at the rate of 25 kg per hectare in the soil at the time of last ploughing.
•• Bhua Pillu: The female insect lays yellow colored eggs in clusters on the lower surface of the leaves. The young emerge from the eggs and eat the greenery of the leaves in flocks. This makes the leaves look like a net.
1. Break the leaves with eggs and bury them in the soil.
2. Oxidemethane Methyl 25 EC Make a solution of 1 ml per liter of water and spray it.
•• Capiculum Borer: The adult insect is light brown in colour. The upper wing of the insect has brown stripes and the edge of the lower wing is black. Its pupae cause damage by eating leaves, tender branches and fruit tops.
1. Use light trap in the field. 2. Use bird percher in the field.
3. Do intercropping of coriander with sunflower.
4. Keep the field free from weeds.
5. Cypermethrin 10 EC Make a solution of 1 ml per liter of water and spray it on the crop.
•• Leaf Blight Disease: In this disease brown black circular spots are formed on the leaves, later all the leaves get scorched.
1. Select the resistant strain.
2. Adopt crop rotation.
3. Keep the field free from weeds. Make a solution of 75 percent soluble powder of Mancozeb in 2.5 grams per liter of water and spray it.
•• Root Rot: In this disease, a black spot is formed on the part of the plant adjacent to the ground, due to which later the root dries up and the plant falls.
1. Sow disease free seeds.
2. Uproot the diseased plant and burn it.
3. Adopt crop rotation.
4. Sow the seed after seed treatment. For this, treat Captan or Thiram at the rate of 2.5 grams per kg of seed.